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20 March 13

**No association found between maternal vitamin D levels and offspring’s bone mineral content
**How vitamin E prevents cancer
**Xylitol sweets accredited by the British Dental Health Foundation
**Consumption of green tea and coffee and stroke risk
**YouGov survey finds young people instantly think a blackberry is a phone rather than a fruit
**Aroma compounds from olive oil can regulate feelings of satiety
**Consumer confidence in the food industry reduced since horsemeat incident
**Natural approach may help suppress appetite more than products
**Celebrity endorsement may have extended influence
**Orange pomace can be used to make gluten-free bread

**No association found between maternal vitamin D levels and offspring’s bone mineral content
A study by researchers from the University of Bristol and the University of East Anglia and published in the Lancet has investigated whether there is any link between a mother’s vitamin D levels during pregnancy and her child’s bone mineral content at 9-10 years of age. Current recommendations are that pregnant women take a 10 mg supplement of vitamin D every day, however Lawlor et al found no association between maternal vitamin D levels and their offspring’s bone mineral content.   The study funded by the UK Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and the University of Bristol analysed data from 3960 mother and child pairs who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. At different stages of pregnancy, during routine antennal screening, maternal vitamin D levels were measured. Mothers who had levels of vitamin D at more than 50 nmols/l were classified as having sufficient levels, levels at 49.99 to 27.50nmol/l were classified as insufficient and lower than 27.50nmol/l was classified as deficient.  Between the ages of 9 and 10 years the children had the bone mineral content of their total body (except the head) measured.  After analysis Lawlor et al report that they found no link between bone mineral content in children assessed by DEXA scanning and maternal vitamin D concentrations in any trimester of pregnancy.

RSSL's Functional Ingredients Laboratory provides vitamin analysis in a wide range of matrices including drinks, fortified foods, pre-mixes and multi-vitamin tablets, including the analysis for Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3.  It provides a full vitamin and mineral analysis service to assist with labelling, due diligence, claim substantiation and stability. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**How vitamin E prevents cancer
A study published in Science Signaling has investigated how vitamin E could prevent cancer.  Previous animal studies have found that vitamin E can prevent cancer but human clinical trials have not reported the same benefit.  Using prostate cancer cells the researchers found that the gamma form of tocopherol was the most potent anti-cancer form of the vitamin. This was due to its chemical shape, as it was able to attach to Akt in the most precise way.   The scientists manipulated the structure of that vitamin E molecule and found that the effectiveness of this new agent they created was 20-fold higher than the vitamin itself in cells. In experiments in mice, this agent reduced the size of prostate cancer tumours. Chen et al state that it inhibits the activation of the enzyme Akt, leading to tumour cell death, without affecting normal cells. The scientists report however that vitamin E supplements will not be effective as they are synthetic and based predominantly on a form of the vitamin that does not fight cancer as effectively.  They also note that the human body can’t absorb the high doses that appear to be required to achieve the anti-cancer effect. (Science Daily)

RSSL's Lipids Laboratory, part of the Investigative Analysis Team has considerable expertise in all aspects of fat analysis and fatty acid profiling and can analyse for both tocopherols and tocotrienols (forms of vitamin E).  To evaluate the healthy fats in your product please contact Customer Services on 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Xylitol sweets accredited by the British Dental Health Foundation
According to the Daily Mail, Peppersmith have developed a range of sweets that contain xylitol which has been found to reduce plaque and tooth decay.  The sweets called Tingz have been accredited by the British Dental Health Foundation and are available in strawberry, vanilla, orange and mandarin flavours. The products will be a launched at IFE and will soon be available to buy from a number of retailers including Ocado and Whole Foods Market. 

**Consumption of green tea and coffee and stroke risk
A large prospective cohort study published in Stroke by researchers from several universities in Japan has found that people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day had a 20% lower stroke risk compared to those who seldom drank it. The study investigated  the dietary habits of  81978 participants who were  involved in an ongoing cohort study  of Japanese adults aged 40 to 69 which  focused on lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.  Using a food frequency questionnaire the participants recorded their consumption of various foods and drinks including green tea and coffee. During the follow up period of 13 years there were 3425 strokes and 910 incidents of coronary heart disease.  The scientists found that those who drank two to three cups of green tea a day were 14% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never drank it, people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day were 20% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never drank it, and that higher green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of CVD overall and lower risk of the different types of stroke.   They also report that the people who drank coffee  three to six times a week were 11% less likely to have any type of stroke compared with those who seldom drank it, people who drank coffee once a day were 20% less likely to have any type of stroke compared with those who seldom drank it, people who drank coffee twice or more daily were 19% less likely to have any type of stroke compared with those who seldom drank it and coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of CVD overall and the cerebral infarction type of stroke. Higher green tea or coffee consumption together was associated with reduced risks of CVD and all types of stroke, especially intracerebral haemorrhage, and no significant association was observed between green tea or coffee consumption and coronary heart disease. (NHS choices)

RSSL's Functional Ingredients Laboratory can analyse green tea for catechins, including epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC). For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**YouGov survey finds young people instantly think a blackberry is a phone rather than a fruit
Defra has cited a YouGov poll which has reported that 55 per cent of the UK population haven’t been to a farm in the past ten years and when asked to select from a list of professions, only 11 per cent saw farming as the career they’d most like to work in, compared to the 51 per cent who wanted to work as teachers, doctors or lawyers.  Other finding include that when asked what a “blackberry” is, 82 per cent of people aged 16-24 instantly thought of a mobile phone rather than a fruit.

**Aroma compounds from olive oil can regulate feelings of satiety
Scientists from Technische Universität München (TUM) and the University of Vienna have investigated how “natural “ oils and fats regulate the sensation of feeling full after eating.  Schieberle et al. studied the four fats and oils: lard, butterfat, rapeseed oil and olive oil.  Participants supplemented their normal diet with 500 grams of low fat yoghurt enriched with one of the fats or oils per day for three months.   The scientists report that olive oil had the biggest satiety effect.  Those who consumed the olive oil had the higher concentrations of serotonin in their blood. The participants also reported that the yoghurt supplemented with olive oil was very filling.  There was no increase in body fat or weight in the participants in this group. The scientists found the results surprising as the rapeseed oil contained similar fatty acids to the olive oil, so they carried out a second study to investigate the aroma compounds.  The participants were either given yoghurt with olive oil aroma compounds or a control.  The participants who received the plain yoghurt consumed an extra 176 calories per day and were found to have lower levels of serotonin in their blood compared to those who consumed the olive oil aroma compound.  The researchers also investigated how effective the aroma substances present in the oil were at inhibiting glucose absorption.  They note that the faster the somatic cells absorb glucose from the blood, the sooner a person will start to feel hungry.  Using olive oil from Spain, Greece, Italy and Australia they found that hexanal and E2-hexanal reduced the absorption of glucose from the blood in liver cells.  Large amounts of these aroma compounds were found in the Italia olive oil. They conclude by stating that aroma is capable of regulating satiety.

**Consumer confidence in the food industry reduced since horsemeat incident
A survey by Which? is reporting that since the horsemeat incident, consumer trust in the food industry has reduced by 24%, with 30% of shoppers buying less processed meat and a quarter buying fewer ready meals containing meat.   Other findings include that two thirds of people (68%) don't think the government has been giving enough attention to enforcing labelling laws, with half of consumers (47%) not confident that ingredient information is accurate. Which? lists five urgent steps the government needs to take: more surveillance that’s better coordinated, tougher enforcement, tighter legislation, improved food labelling and return food labelling policy to the FSA.

RSSL's DNA and Protein Laboratory can perform meat speciation using UKAS accredited ELISA techniques to identify the presence of pork, beef, lamb, poultry and horse. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Natural approach may help suppress appetite more than products
Despite the fact than many new appetite suppressant products are released each year, scientists from University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) suggest that more natural approaches may be more beneficial. UAB Department of Nutrition Sciences Professor and Chair Timothy Garvey, M.D.is quoted as saying that there are little or no rigorous data addressing the efficacy of these sorts of compounds and people buying these products are likely to be wasting money. Garvey suggested that people should instead look for help from health care providers. Garvey’s colleague at UAB, Wellness Director Lauren Whitt, Ph.D., indicated that starting the day with protein can help suppress appetite. Whitt is quoted as saying that it has long been suggested that people eat breakfast to help with hunger throughout the day, but your breakfast must have protein. Whitt stated that later on, a portion of an unsaturated fat can help and added that “Oleic acid, which is found in unsaturated fats, helps quell hunger and while it may sound counterintuitive, this is healthy fat, so snack on a couple tablespoons of peanut butter or an ounce of nuts." (Science Daily)

**Celebrity endorsement may have extended influence
A study by scientists from the University of Liverpool and soon to be published in The Journal of Pediatrics has looked at the effect of celebrity endorsement of products on children. 181 children aged between 8 and 11 were asked to watch one of three adverts or other TV footage (Match of the Day with Gary Lineker as the main presenter) within a 20-minute cartoon segment. The adverts were for Walkers crisps (featuring Gary Lineker as a celebrity endorser), another snack product or a toy. Following the films, the children were offered crisps from two bowls, one labelled “Walkers” and the other “Supermarket” and the amount eaten was recorded. Results showed that children who watched either the Walkers advert or the Match of the Day footage ate considerably more of the crisps labelled “Walkers” than children who watched the other snack or toy adverts.  Lead researcher Dr Emma Boyland is quoted as saying that “the study demonstrated, for the first time, that the influence of the celebrity extended even further than expected and prompted the children to eat the endorsed product even when they saw the celebrity outside of any actual promotion for the brand. It quantifies the significant influence that the celebrity has over children's brand preferences and actual consumption”. Boyland added that this study “has consequences for the use of celebrities, and in particular sports stars, in advertising unhealthy or High Fat Salt and Sugar (HFSS) products”. (Science Daily)

**Orange pomace can be used to make gluten-free bread
Removal of waste from fruit and vegetable processing can be costly and may account for up to a third of the fruit and vegetables involved. This waste may contain high quantities of nutrients. Scientists from Teagasc Food Research Centre and University College Cork have investigated using Orange pomace, a low fat, high fibre by-product from the smoothie and juice industry as orange flour in gluten-free bread. One of the researchers, Dr Eimear Gallagher from Teagasc Food Research Centre is quoted as saying that developing gluten-free formulations can be challenging as the structure-building protein (i.e., gluten) is absent.  The study looked at the effect of orange pomace and water addition and proofing time on a number of bread characteristics including loaf volume, crumb structure and colour, microstructure, and nutritional and sensory properties. Samples were also assessed using sensory panellists and the breads scored well with respect to appearance, flavour, texture and overall acceptability.  Gallagher concluded that the study showed that Orange pomace had proved to be a viable, low cost food by-product for improving the physical and nutritional characteristics of gluten-free breads and added that it has potential to be used in both gluten-containing and gluten-free breads and confectionary.

RSSL carries out allergen testing using immunological, DNA and distillation techniques, depending on the allergen to be detected. Detection limits are in the range 1- 100 mg allergen/kg of sample for almond, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, peanut, walnut, hazelnut, cashew nut, pistachio nut, pecan nut, pine nut and chestnut.  Celery, celeriac, black mustard, lupin  and kiwi allergens can be detected by DNA methods, as can crustacean, fish and mollusc allergens.  The laboratory also uses a range of UKAS accredited immunological procedures for the detection of allergens including gluten, peanut, hazelnut, almonds, soya, egg, milk, sesame and histamine.  Distillation and titration methods are used for the determination of sulphur dioxide and sulphites.  For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com.

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