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17 July 13

**Emotions from food and drink consumption investigated
**Betaine supplementation may aid sports performance
**Pre-boiled ‘dippy egg’ due to be launched
**Vitamin E and vitamin C found to reduce lifespan in voles
**Mechanisms by which cranberries protect against urinary tract and other infections
**Blood levels of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids and prostate cancer
**IFST updates its information statement on trans fatty acids
**Rat study finds choline intake improves memory and attention-holding capacity
**Diet linked to bowel cancer risk
**Study finds link between eating fish during pregnancy and reduced anxiety
**Researchers find soy doesn't prevent prostate cancer return
**Timing and type of infant food exposure and type 1 diabetes mellitus risk

**Emotions from food and drink consumption investigated
Researchers from AZTI-Tecnalia in Spain have been working to identify the emotions, including desires, aspirations and motivations, linked to eating and drinking certain foods so they can help design new products and assist the marketing associated with them. Head of AZTI-Tecnalia’s Foodstuff Research Unit, Leire Barañano, is quoted as saying  “the benefits of these studies for the foodstuff industry are many, since they not only help to identify new market niches, they also indicate which food trends are set to make an impact on these niches and on society in general. This will make it possible to address the present and future needs of consumers before the competition does so.” One of the first studies AZTI-Tecnalia carried out focuses on drinking coffee. The study shows that coffee arouses a positive emotional charge and drinking it is linked to pleasure, activity, energy and happiness. For this study, 35 emotional terms were listed and participants were asked to indicate which emotions from the list coffee aroused in three different consumption situations, namely morning coffee, coffee drunk socially and coffee drunk leisurely. Lead researcher Maruxa García-Quiroga, indicated that “drinking coffee is linked to positive emotions relating firstly to pleasure, present in a prominent way in the vast majority of responses” and added that “we have not found any link with negative sensations”. Iñaki Vidaurrazaga, head of Marketing at Café Fortaleza, who collaborated on the work, indicates that following the study they have decided to “to reinforce and touch up some of the messages we transmit to the consumer” (Basque Research)

**Betaine supplementation may aid sports performance
A study by researchers from University of Connecticut, DuPont Nutrition & Health, and Ithaca College, NY and published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition has found that when added to a sports drink, betaine boosts athletic performance by around 5.5%. Betaine is a nutrient found in a variety of animals, plants, and microorganisms. 16 college-aged cyclists were tested to assess a baseline of a number of performance variables including average and peak power. Subjects then consumed half a commercial sports drink or a betaine drink twice a day for seven days and were then tested again. Participants were then switched to the other drink for seven days and finally tested a third time. Results showed that following the week of betaine supplementation, peak and mean anaerobic power increased by 5.5 % compared to baseline. Supervising researcher Thomas Swensen is quoted as saying that “Betaine may contribute to creatine synthesis, which improves, strength, power and short-term performance,"  He added that  "future research should elucidate the mechanism of how betaine supplementation improves performance." (News-Medical)

**Pre-boiled ‘dippy egg’ due to be launched
A new convenience food is about to hit supermarket shelves. The “Dippy Egg” is a single egg, pre-boiled in an airtight bag and sold in a plastic pot. The egg is to be reheated by removing it from the bag, pouring boiling water on it and leaving for 5 minutes. The manufacturer, Pork Farms, indicates that the yolk will still not set even if left in the water for longer. The Grocer trade magazine has filmed the cooking process and added it to its website. The Daily Mail also gives Delia Smith’s advice on cooking your own egg. (Daily Mail)

**Vitamin E and vitamin C found to reduce lifespan in voles
A study published in Biology Letters has investigated the effects of high dose vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation on longevity using voles. Previous research by Speakman et al. found that mice given high doses of dietary vitamin E had an extended lifespan relative to controls, although oxidative damage to lipids and DNA was unaffected. Vitamin C supplementation had no effect on lifespan or oxidative damage, but did reduce expression of several genes linked to antioxidant protection. Speakman et al. then investigated if high dose supplementation of vitamin C (control diet + 180 mg kg−1 of ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate) or a vitamin E-supplemented diet group (control diet+ 550 mg kg−1 α-tocopherol) had the same effect in voles as it did in the mice.  They discovered that the vitamins had the opposite effect. Voles in cold conditions and warm conditions that were fed supplements of vitamin E or vitamin C lived much shorter on average than those fed a regular diet.  Compared to animals on a regular diet, lifespan was reduced by 11% and 26% for vitamin E and C voles in the cold and by 17% and 18% for vitamin E and C voles in the warm. Despite the effect on the voles' lifespan, the researchers found that the vitamin supplements did have some effect in decreasing free radical damage.  Speakman states: "It's unlikely that randomised controlled trials examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human lifespan would be possible, so we are dependent on the results of animal studies. It's impossible at this stage to extrapolate the results from this small amount of data we have on voles and mice but it does suggest that caution is warranted in the use of high doses of antioxidant vitamins."

RSSL's Lipids Laboratory, part of the Investigative Analysis Team has considerable expertise in all aspects of fat analysis and fatty acid profiling and can analyse for both tocopherols and tocotrienols (forms of vitamin E).  To evaluate the healthy fats in your product please contact Customer Services on 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Mechanisms by which cranberries protect against urinary tract and other infections
Researchers from McGill University have investigated how cranberries may impart protect against urinary tract and other infections.  Previous research has indicated that cranberries prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) by preventing bacteria from sticking to the wall of the urinary tract.  It is thought that this is due to phytochemicals found in cranberries known as proanthocyanidins (PAC).  However the mechanism is not fully understood.  Two studies, led by Nathalie Tufenkji have investigated this biological mechanism.  The first study published in the Canadian Journal of Microbiology indicates that cranberry powder can prevent Proteus mirabilis, a bacterium often involved in complicated UTIs from swarming on agar plates to swimming within the agar.  It also reports that higher concentrations of cranberry powder are better able to reduce the ability of the bacteria to produce urease, an enzyme that contributes to the virulence of infections.  Tufenkji et al note that derivatives of cranberry may be helpful in stopping the spread of bacteria associated with implantable medical devices such as catheters, which are commonly involved in causing UTIs. These results build on previous research which found that cranberry materials hinder movement of other bacteria involved in UTIs. A genome-wide analysis of an uropathogenic E. coli revealed that expression of the gene that encodes for the bacteria's flagellar filament was decreased in the presence of cranberry PACs. (Science Daily)

RSSL’s Functional Ingredients Laboratory can analyse food products for polyphenolic components. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email  enquiries@rssl.com

**Blood levels of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids and prostate cancer
A study reported by the popular press and criticised by the industry has found that high blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids were associated with a 44% increase in the risk of slow growing prostate cancer.  However the scientists did not assess the participants’ diet and use of supplements.  The study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, by researchers from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Ohio State University, recruited 834 men who had been diagnosed prostate cancer, of which 156 were diagnosed with aggressive cancer, and randomly selected 1393 men of similar age and race and who did not develop the condition. Blood samples were collected and blood levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (also called polyunsaturated fatty acids, or PUFAs) were assessed.  The scientists used standard statistical methods to analyse for the associations between overall blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer risk overall, and by grade.  They also carried out a meta-analysis to compare their results to similar findings.   In brief they found that, compared with men whose blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids were in the lowest quartile, men in the highest quartile had: 44% increased risk of low grade prostate cancer, 71% increased risk of high grade prostate cancer, and 43% increased risk of total prostate cancer. A higher blood level of linoleic acid was associated with a reduced risk of low grade prostate cancer and total prostate cancer. NHS choices state that the “researchers say their study confirms previous reports of increased prostate cancer risk among men with high blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. They say the consistency of these findings suggests that these fatty acids are involved in the growth of prostate tumours. “

RSSL's Lipids Laboratory, part of the Investigative Analysis Team has expertise in all aspects of fat analysis and fatty acid profiling, including the determination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**IFST updates its information statement on trans fatty acids
The Institute of Food Science and Technology has updated its information statement on trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids, like saturated fatty acids, raise LDL (or “bad”) cholesterol levels in the blood, thereby increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. While there is no evidence of risk at current UK levels of intake, and the reduction of the intake of energy from fat, including  from saturated fatty acids, is of major importance, IFST supports the WHO recommendations and subsequent recommendations from the UK Food Standards Agency, the European Food Safety Authority and authorities elsewhere,  that manufacturers should reduce the levels of trans fatty acids arising from hydrogenation, and notes the progress that industry has made in that direction. Consumption in the UK has been declining (Hulshof, 1999). While that statement sums up the present state of knowledge, scientists have to act on existing knowledge while recognising that further research will bring new information and knowledge, which may in turn lead to revised conclusions. IFST continues to support the need for continuing research in this whole area.

RSSL's Lipids Laboratory, part of the Investigative Analysis Team can determine the fatty acid profile of all dietary fats and oils including trans fats. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email  enquiries@rssl.com

**Rat study finds choline intake improves memory and attention-holding capacity
Scientists from the University of Granada, Spain, Simon Bolivar University, Venezuela, and the University of York, UK have discovered the benefits of choline, a vitamin B group nutrient.  Scientists found that rats fed choline had improved long-term memory, and attention holding capacity.  Choline is found in eggs, chicken or beef liver, soy and wheat germ.   The first experiment investigated memory retentions of adult offspring mice whose mothers were fed choline during the third term of gestation, and compared this to adult offspring of mice fed either a standard or choline-deficient diet.  The scientists found that prenatal choline intake improved long-term memory in the resulting offspring once they reach adulthood. In the second experiment, the researchers measured changes in attention that occurred in adult rats fed a choline supplement for 12 weeks, versus those with no choline intake. They found that the rats which had ingested choline maintained better attention than the control when presented with a familiar stimulus. The control group, fed a standard diet, showed the normal learning delay when this familiar stimulus acquired a new meaning. However, the choline-rich intake rats showed a fall in attention to the familiar stimulus, rapidly learning its new meaning. (UGR)

RSSL's Functional Ingredients Laboratory provides vitamin analysis in a wide range of matrices including drinks, fortified foods, pre-mixes and multi-vitamin tablets.  For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Diet linked to bowel cancer risk
The popular press including the BBC are reporting that scientists from Aberdeen and Edinburgh universities have found that consumption of fizzy drinks, cakes, biscuits, crisps and desserts may increase the risk of bowel cancer.  The study published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention and funded by the Medical Research Council used data from 2000 bowel cancer patients involved in the Scottish Colorectal Cancer study and investigated factors including diet (over 170 food), levels of physical activity and smoking and colorectal cancer risk and compared these factors with those of similar sized healthy populations.  The scientists found a positive link between bowel cancer and a diet high in sugary and fatty foods. They found that a diet high in fruit, vegetable and other healthy food was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, however a diet high in meat, fat and sugar was associated with an increased risk.

**Study finds link between eating fish during pregnancy and reduced anxiety
Findings published in PLOS One have found that eating oily fish can reduce a woman’s stress and anxiety during pregnancy.  Scientists from the Children of the 90s at University of Bristol and the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil based their findings on data available from 9500 pregnant women. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, pregnant and breastfeeding women should consume at least 8 ounces, but no more than 12 ounces of seafood each week, and not eat certain types of fish that are high in mercury-a toxin that can harm the nervous system of a foetus or the developing child. The scientists found that those who didn’t eat any kind of seafood were 52% more likely to be stressed at 32 weeks of pregnancy than those women who consumed fish throughout their pregnancy.    The scientists came to these findings even after they took into account other anxiety causing factors.  They found that vegetarian pregnant women were around 25% more likely to suffer from stress during pregnancy.  Dr Pauline Emmett, a co author of the study states: "It is possible, but not proved, that this association with fish is due to the omega-3 fatty acid content of the fish. For vegetarians there are dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids especially flax oils, algae oils and nuts and seeds such as walnuts. There are also products such as omega-3 eggs and milk on the market which they could choose. Some vegetarians are happy to eat fish from time to time and we would encourage this especially as we are not sure what ingredient in fish is the most effective.”

RSSL's Lipids Laboratory, part of the Investigative Analysis Team has expertise in all aspects of fat analysis and fatty acid profiling, including the determination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Researchers find soy doesn't prevent prostate cancer return
A study led by Maarten Bosland from the University of Illinois, Chicago has discovered that men who took soy supplements after having their prostate cancer removed were just as likely to see their cancer return as men who didn't take soy.  Research has been conflicting, with some indicating isoflavones may help in the prevention of prostate cancer, and others reporting that soy doesn’t reduce the risk of developing the disease.   The findings published in the Journal of the American Medical Association randomly assigned 177 men who'd had their cancerous prostates surgically removed less than four months earlier, to drink either a soy or placebo beverage every day for up to two years, between July 1997 and May 2010.  The intervention period was stopped early as no benefit was seen from taking soy.  Twenty seven per cent of the participants in the soy group ended up having their cancer return.  This compares to about 30% in the placebo group.

RSSL's Functional Ingredients Laboratory can determine daidzein, genistein and other soya isoflavones by HPLC. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Timing and type of infant food exposure and type 1 diabetes mellitus risk
Research published in JAMA Pediatrics has investigated the associations between perinatal and infant exposures, especially early infant diet, and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).  Frederiksen et al. recruited 1835 children at increased genetic risk for T1DM and followed them up from birth.  Data on the infant diet were collected during telephone or face-to-face interviews at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months of age. Mothers reported on the date of introduction and frequency of exposure (ie, number of servings per day) of all milks, formulas, and foods the infants consumed during the previous 3 months. Exclusive breastfeeding duration was determined by the reported age at which the infant was exposed to any foods or liquids other than breast milk or water.  The scientists examined early (<4 months of age) and late (≥6 months of age) first exposure to solid foods compared with first exposures at 4 to 5 months of age (referent). Both early (less than 4 months of age) and late (greater than or equal to 6 months of age) first exposure to any solid food was associated with development of T1DM.  Early exposure to fruit and late exposure to rice/oat was associated with an increased risk of T1DMB, whereas breastfeeding when wheat /barley (HR, were introduced appeared to be associated with a decreased risk.  Frederiksen et al conclude by stating “Our data suggest multiple foods/antigens play a role and that there is a complex relationship between the timing and type of infant food exposures and T1DM risk. In summary, there appears to be a safe window in which to introduce solid foods between 4 and 5 months of age; solid foods should be introduced while continuing to breastfeed to minimize T1DM risk in genetically susceptible children. These findings should be replicated in a larger cohort for confirmation.”

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