12 January - 20 June 2016

Vitamin D2 and calcium fortified milk and its interaction with iron and zinc bioavailability

23 Oct 13

A rat study by Arora et al. from the National Dairy Research Institute in India and published in Food Chemistry has investigated bioavailability of calcium and vitamin D2 from milk fortified with either calcium or vitamin D2 alone or fortified with both micronutrients.  It has also investigated fortification interaction with iron and zinc bioavailability.  Calcium and vitamin D have both been linked to promoting bone health. Dietary calcium deficiency has been associated with risk of osteoporosis, hypertension and colon cancer amongst others.  Vitamin D has been linked to the promotion of calcium absorption in the gut and bone mineralisation.  Arora et al note that without vitamin D only 10 to 15% of dietary calcium and about 60% of phosphorous is absorbed.  The researchers split 32 male mice into 4 groups and fed each group a synthetic diet (67%) with either an unfortified milk, a calcium fortified milk (600 ppm calcium), a vitamin D2 fortified milk (600 IU/L) or a calcium and vitamin D2 fortified milk (600 ppm calcium and 600 IU/L) for 28 days.  Faeces and urine were collected on a daily basis and absorption and retention of calcium and vitamin D2 were measured on a weekly basis for four weeks. Vitamin D2 was found to increase calcium absorption.  Compared to single fortification the multiple micronutrient fortified milk increased both calcium and vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 was found to increase the absorption of iron and zinc whereas calcium fortification decreased absorption. However the absorption of iron and zinc in the multiple micronutrient milk was found to be similar to the control indicating that vitamin D2 decreased the negative effect of calcium.  Azora et al conclude by stating that milk is a suitable vehicle for calcium and vitamin D2 fortification reiterating that when used in combination calcium and vitamin D2 increased which indicates a positive interaction between both the nutrients.

RSSL's Functional Ingredients Laboratory provides vitamin analysis in a wide range of matrices including drinks, fortified foods, pre-mixes and multi-vitamin tablets, including the analysis for Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3.  It provides a full vitamin and mineral analysis service to assist with labelling, due diligence, claim substantiation and stability. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

RSSL' s Metals Laboratory is equipped with AAS and ICP-MS to analyse for a wide range of concentrations of iron (UKAS accredited) including haem iron and other metals in foods, drinks and dietary supplements. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

RSSL’s Metals Laboratory is equipped with AAS and ICP-MS to analyse for a wide range of concentrations of metals in foods, drinks and dietary supplements. Zinc can be determined down to a level of 50 ppb. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

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