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12 Feb 14

**Poor breakfast habits in adolescence may predict metabolic syndrome in adults
**The effects of vitamins on ADHD in adults
**Researchers develop electronic tongue that can identify brands of beer
**Omega-3 fatty acids found to benefit brain development in monkeys
**Tests in West Yorkshire found a third of products were not what they claimed to be or mislabelled
**Cholesterol-lowering potential of certain probiotics
**Hempseed oil found to contain health-promoting compounds

**Poor breakfast habits in adolescence may predict metabolic syndrome in adults
A study published in Public Health Nutrition concluded that poor breakfast habits – defined as skipping breakfast or only eating or drinking something sweet - in adolescence were a predictor for metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Researchers from Umea University in Sweden used questionnaires at age 16 to assess adolescent’s breakfast habits, inviting all school leavers at a particular institution who were aged 16 in 1981 to participate. The participants underwent health examinations at age 21 and 43, and at this latter examination were assessed for metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity; the specific components of the syndrome that the researchers found to be predicted by breakfast diet at 16 were central obesity (waist circumference of more than 80 cm for a woman, 94 cm for a man) and high fasting glucose (equal to or greater than 5.6mmol/l). The researchers noted that when consumption of fruit and vegetables and physical activity at age 43 was taken into account in their multivariate model of analysis, the association between poor breakfast habits at 16 and metabolic syndrome at 43 was attenuated – a suggested interpretation was that the effect could be mediated by future healthy diet and physical activity. They concluded that further research was necessary in order to fully understand the documented relationship between early poor breakfast habits and metabolic syndrome in adults.

**The effects of vitamins on ADHD in adults
A study published in the British Journal of Psychiatry describes the finding of a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in which adults with ADHD were given capsules of a vitamin and mineral mix. The researchers found that that the participants given the vitamins and minerals showed an improvement in their ADHD symptoms compared with those on placebo. The specific vitamins and minerals used were those of a broad spectrum micronutrient formula, EMPowerplus. The 80 participants were given 3 doses of five capsules per day - either EMPowerplus or placebo – for eight weeks.   At 1,2,4,6, and 8 week intervals they were assessed on the GCI-I (Clinical Global Impression – Improvement) Scale, the MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), and both at the outset and at the 8-week point there was further assessment on the CAARS (Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale) - based on the observations of the clinician, the participants and nominated people close to the participants. Analysis showed favourable CAARS results for the group on the micronutrient treatment, with the exceptions of the clinicians’ CAARS ratings. Statistically significant improvement was also noted for the micronutrient group compared with placebo on the CGI-I Scale. The researchers concluded that the study provided “preliminary evidence of efficacy for micronutrients in the treatment of ADHD symptoms in adults.” (NHS choices)

RSSL's Functional Ingredients Laboratory provides vitamin analysis in a wide range of matrices including drinks, fortified foods, pre-mixes and multi-vitamin tablets.  It provides a full vitamin and mineral analysis service to assist with labelling, due diligence, claim substantiation and stability. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Researchers develop electronic tongue that can identify brands of beer
Researchers from the Autonomous University of Barcelona have used an electronic “tongue” to distinguish between different types of beer. The tongue consists of an array of sensors which detect ions present in the beer, analysing for species such as bicarbonate, carbonate, calcium, sodium and chloride. Analysing the responses generated by the sensors allowed categories of beer such as lager or low-alcohol to be identified. Fifty one samples of beer were used for the study, all from the same manufacturer. Samples were used from different batches and bottle sizes, with two replicas of each being treated as independent samples when taking the measurements. Each sample was stirred to reduce foaming before the electrodes were immersed in them and their signals recorded. After analysis of the signals by LDA (linear discriminant analysis), correct classification of beer type was achieved for 81.9% of the samples.

**Omega-3 fatty acids found to benefit brain development in monkeys
A study published in the Journal of Neuroscience has found that monkeys that consumed a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids had brains which were more developed than those that ate a deficient diet.  Researchers from Oregon Health & Science University used functional bran imaging in live animals to analyse the interaction of multiple brain networks.  They note that the patterns are similar to those found in humans.   The study measured docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, in older rhesus macaque monkeys.  DHA is important in the development of the brain and vision.  The monkeys had been fed either a diet low or high in omega-3 fatty acids, including DHA all of their lives.  The monkeys fed the high DHA diet showed greater connections within various brain networks similar to the human brain, including networks for higher-level processing and cognition.

RSSL's Lipids Laboratory, part of the Investigative Analysis Team has expertise in all aspects of fat analysis and fatty acid profiling, including the determination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Hempseed oil found to contain health-promoting compounds
A study by Fernández-Arche et al, published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry has found that hempseed oil contains many healthful compounds.  Hempseed has been banned in North America since the 1930s as it contains high levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the compound which induces the high in the recreational use of cannabis. However hemp with low THC content (0.3%) has been legalised by the European Union and low-THC hemp is being used in medicines, papers and fabrics.   Fernández-Arche et al  carried out a detailed analysis of hempseed oil and found it contains, amongst others, sterols, reported to lower cholesterol, aliphatic alcohols known to lower cholesterol and reduce platelet aggregation, and linolenic acids, an omega-3 fatty acid that some studies report has been linked to preventing coronary heart disease. 

RSSL's Lipids Laboratory, part of the Investigative Analysis Team has expertise in all aspects of fat analysis and fatty acid profiling, including the determination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

RSSL's Lipids Laboratory, part of the Investigative analysis team has expertise in all aspects of fat analysis and fatty acid profiling including the determination of CLA.  For information on the lipid profile of your product please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com.

**Cholesterol-lowering potential of certain probiotics
A review published in Nutrition Reviews has assessed the findings of 26 clinical studies and two meta-analyses on the potential of probiotics in reducing LDL-cholesterol.   The scientists note that “significant LDL-C reductions were observed for four probiotic strains: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242, Enterococcus faecium, and the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12. Two synbiotics, L. acidophilus CHO-220 plus inulin and L. acidophilus plus fructo-oligosaccharides, also decreased LDL-C.”   Of the probiotics examined L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 (Cardioviva™) was found to significantly reduce LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol, similar to that of existing therapeutic lifestyle change dietary options.  It also improved other coronary heart disease risk factors, such as inflammatory biomarkers, and has "generally recognised as safe" (GRAS) status.  

RSSL's Product and Ingredient Innovation Team, has considerable experience in re-formulating products to provide more healthy options including low salt, low sugar versions and using pre- and probiotics.  Using RSSL can help speed up your development cycle considerably.  For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

**Tests in West Yorkshire found a third of products were not what they claimed to be or mislabelled
Tests carried out in West Yorkshire by a public laboratory have found that a third of the products tested were not what they claimed to be or were mislabelled.  The research found drinks with banned flame-retardant additives, pork in beef and cheese which is less than half real cheese.  The laboratory also found ham on pizza which was either a poultry or meat emulsion and a herbal slimming tea which was neither herb nor tea but glucose powder with a prescription drug for obesity at 13 times the normal dose. The Guardian is reporting that “experts said they fear the alarming findings from 38% of 900 sample tests by West Yorkshire councils were representative of the picture nationally, with the public at increasing risk as budgets to detect fake or mislabelled foods plummet.”   West Yorkshire's public analyst, Dr Duncan Campbell, is quoted as saying: "We are routinely finding problems with more than a third of samples, which is disturbing at a time when the budget for food standards inspection and analysis is being cut."  A Defra spokesperson has responded by saying “There are already robust procedures in place to identify and prevent food fraud and the FSA has increased funding to support local authorities to carry out this work to £2m.  We will continue to work closely with the food industry, enforcement agencies and across government to improve intelligence on food fraud and clamp down on deliberate attempts to deceive consumers.”

RSSL' s DNA and Protein Laboratory uses PCR techniques to identify DNA from over 20 meat species including chicken, pork and beef in protein extracts and other complex ingredients as well as foodstuffs.   Routine meat speciation is also performed using ELISA techniques to detect pork, beef, lamb, poultry and horse (UKAS accredited).  For more information please contact Customer Services on Freephone 0800 243482 or email enquiries@rssl.com

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