12 January - 20 June 2016

Creating a “healthier” bread using an anthocyanin-rich extract

Scientists from the National University of Singapore have formulated a bread which contains anthocyanin extracted from black rice. The study by Weibiao et al. published in the journal Food Chemistry, reports that the new recipe produces a functional bread option which digests at a slower rate and is high in antioxidants.

Scientists from the National University of Singapore have formulated a bread which contains anthocyanin extracted from black rice. The study by Weibiao et al. published in the journal Food Chemistry, reports that the new recipe produces a functional bread option which digests at a slower rate and is high in antioxidants.  The scientists chose bread as the food system because of its worldwide popularity.  In a previous study the team had identified the anthocyanins in commercially anthocyanin-rick black rice extract powder (ABREP). 

ABREP was added to 100g of plain bread flour at levels of 0%, 1%, 2% and 4%, along with 4g sugar, 3g shortening, 1.2g salt and 1g dried yeast and water added.  The dough was divided into 50g portions and proofed, before being baked at 200oC for 8 min.  Previous research by Weibiao et al. found that when baking under these conditions 79% of cyanidin-3-glucoside (anthocyanin) was retained in the breadcrumb.  The researchers measured the bread volume, texture attributes such as hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and resilience and in vitro digestibility and anthocyanins.

Weibiao et al. found that the absorption of water used in the ABREP bread was higher than that of the control, and increased with increasing levels of ABREP.   No difference was found in volume, an indicator for the quality of bread, between the control dough and the ABREP dough, however once baked, the control had the highest volume (3.5 cm3/g) and the volume successively decrease to 2.89cm3/g for 4% ABERP. The scientists note that this is due to the anthocyanins acting as reducing agents, leading to imbalanced viscoelastic and poor gas retention properties.  The quality of bread with 2% of ABREP was reported to not be significantly different from the control bread. The hardness and chewiness of the breadcrumb were related to the level of ABREP with hardness increasing with higher levels of added ABREP.  Decreases in springiness, cohesiveness and resilience with increasing level of added ABREP were reported.  There were no significant difference in chewiness between the control and the ABREP breads. Using a mathematical model to describe the trajectory of bread digestion, digestion rate was reduced by 12.8%, 14.1%, 20.5% for bread with 1%, 2% and 4% of ABREP respectively. 

In conclusion the study notes that the quality properties and digestibility of bread were influenced by adding ABREP.  The addition of ABREP slowed down digestion rate, “thereby providing extra health benefits to consumers.”

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