12 January - 20 June 2016

Replacing cocoa in cappuccinos with jackfruit seed flour

A global observational study, conducted by researchers from a variety of institutions worldwide, recently published in The Lancet, has shown a link to lower rates of cardiovascular disease and mortality with the consumption of three servings of dairy per day.

According to a study published in PLOS One roasted dry jackfruit seed flour can replace between 50% and 75% of the cocoa used to make cappuccino without impairing flavour or aroma. Jackfruit, grown in tropical regions, can be eaten raw and processed. The seeds, which are a source of fibre, potassium, calcium and sodium, are eaten either boiled, steam or roasted.  Roasting the seeds changes their aroma sensory profile, resulting in the production of an agreeable chocolate aroma.

The study by Spada et al. investigates whether two different flours produced from jackfruit seeds could be used as a substitute for cocoa within cappuccino.   The scientists produced two different flours, one used fermented jackseeds, whilst the other used dried jackseeds. The fermented jackseeds were fermented with pulp and banana leaves.  The team produced 7 kinds of cappuccino: a control with 15% cocoa powder, three products that replaced cocoa powder with 3.75%, 7.5% and 11.25% for dry jackfruit seed flour and three others using fermented flour in the same amounts.

The team measured the physiochemical characteristics of the flours.  This included water activity, moisture, pH, wettability, solubility and colour analysis. Spada et al recruited 126 consuming assessors, aged between 18 -42 years old, who carried out sensory evaluation of the cappuccino formulations.  The assessors evaluated the appearance, aroma, taste and overall impression.  Twenty volunteers were asked to record their impression of the aroma, flavour and colour.  They sampled cappuccino prototypes with 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% substitution of jackfruit flour for chocolate powder.  The final sensory test involved 12 panellists who reached a consensus on the prototypes consider most similar or identical to conventional cappuccino.

The study found that all treatments had a similar density, whilst the 50% fermented jackfruit seed flour reduced the pH compared to the cappuccino formulated with cocoa powder.  The team noted a number of advantages of using dry jackfruit seed flour including moisture reduction and high wettability, and solubility.

The instrumental colour and consumer study found that “independent of the kind of jackfruit seed flour, 75% produced formulations with the same yellowness as the control.” The team notes that these results “demonstrate the innovate potential of dry jackfruit seeds as a cocoa powder replacer.” The team note that “before this study, the low acceptability of cocoa substitutes was justified due to low lipid concentrations, but jackfruit seeds also have low lipids and do not reduce the consumer acceptance when substituted for 50% or 75% cocoa powder.

The study states that substituting cocoa with dry jackfruit seed flour at 50% and 75% improved the aroma and cappuccino acceptability.  However, fermented flour used for 75% and 100% cocoa powder substitution reduced the aroma acceptability.   They also report that the dry jackfruit seed flour cappuccino had a similar taste to the control, whereas the fermented flour reduced the acceptance of taste.  The panellists reported that the aroma of cappuccino made with dry jackseed resembled cappuccino, chocolate, cinnamon and coffee with cappuccino and chocolate flavours.

The study concludes by stating that “dry jackseed flour is an innovative cocoa powder substitute; it could be used in food preparation consequently utilising this tropical fruit waste by incorporating it as an ingredient in a common product of the human diet.”

RSSL's Product and Ingredient Innovation Team, has considerable expertise in developing a wide range of food and drink products at a laboratory and pilot scale. To find out more please contact Customer Services telephone 0118 918 4076 or e-mail enquiries@rssl.com

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